Just as any branch of medical science will have highly trained professionals to cover a given field, so does dentistry also have several kinds of dental specialists. These are people who have undergone general dental training and are dentists, but then have a qualification to deal with special cases, and undergo additional training to be able to work in a given field, or to repair a certain aspect of the teeth. Let us see some of them.
An oral surgeon is a dentist who has undergone training in surgery, and can perform oral surgery. Usually, dental implantologists, the people who place dental implants in the mouth are oral surgeons, and there are certain procedures that only an oral surgeon can perform. These include removal of growths, curettes, cutting tongue ties, surgical extraction of teeth, and dental implants.
Orthodontists are the dentists that are trained to deal with braces, aligners, and other orthodontic appliances. They know about the growth patterns and location of teeth, their alignment and how they can become misaligned. They also understand about the very complicated apparatus of the braces, and how to make them.
Dealing with children is a special field altogether, and not just because you have to understand kids and shape your treatment to include them and their ways, but also because their teeth have not fully erupted. The growth patterns of the human jaw and the bones, along with the teeth and the periodontium is what paediatric dentists really specialise in.
Endodontics is the field of dentistry that deals with the internal structures of the tooth. An endodontist deals with root canal treatments that general dentists also deal with, but with the more complicated cases. Many times the tooth roots are difficult to get to, and special skill is needed to reach them. Many times tooth roots are irregular, and filling them and caring for them may become very difficult, and this is when an endodontist steps in.
Usually also an oral surgeon, periodontists are people who specialise in the health of the periodontium: the gums, alveolus and the soft tissues surrounding the teeth. They also specialise in dental implants and the diseases of the jawbone, and can prevent and treat periodontitis and other gum diseases.
A prosthodontist is a dental specialist who specialises in the reconstruction of teeth and jawbones. People who make dental crowns, bridges and other dental prosthetics. They are also the specialists to seek out if you have problems snoring, have got traumatic injuries to the mouth and oral cavity, and with any TMJ problems.